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2009 10 Surveying and Mapping Technology Events

Number of visits: Date:2010-02-08
Scale topographic maps covering the state's basic

  National basic scale topographic map, including 1:100 10000, 1:50 million, 1:25 million, 1:10 million, 1:5 million, 1:1 million, 1:5000 and 1:2000 topographic maps. My 1:100 10000, 1:50 million, 1:25 million, 1:10 10000 topographic maps now cover all the land territory; 1:5 million and 1:1 million, respectively, topographic maps cover the land area of about 85% and 47%; 1:5000,1:2000 or larger scale topographic maps covering the basic urban areas of the country. 1:5 million nationwide topographic maps are the most important basic scale maps, we will complete topographic map coverage of 1:5 million, is the need for national economic construction, but also reflects a country's level of economic development and mapping standards. National Topographic Map of 1:5 million, began in 1951, began in 1956 at the national large-scale test facilities, test facilities in 1964 and updated simultaneously. As of 2005, a total measurement system 1:5 10000 topographic maps of more than 19,000 sites, covering an area of 7.6 million square kilometers. In 2006 began implementing the "west of the country a blank area topographic map 1:5 million mapping project", one after another measurement system, more than 5,000 pieces of 1:5 million, topographic maps, covering an area of 2 million square kilometers. By 2010, China will achieve the 1:5 10000 topographic maps covering the whole country's land territory. Topographic map 1:1 million mapping began in 1978, mainly to meet the national agricultural zoning and land resources, the need for detailed investigation, has become provincial, district (municipal) level, the most important basic scale topographic maps. Topographic Map 1:1 million 15 thousand pieces of the system have been measured, covering an area of more than 450 million square kilometers, the basic coverage of the primary production of food and cash crops in plain and hilly areas.

 
National geodetic datum coordinate system to establish and 2000 to enable

  National geodetic datum, including graphic geodetic datum, elevation and gravity reference network, a national survey and mapping work on the basis measurement system. In 1954, China's military surveying and mapping departments, through the eastern part of the regional first-class triangle lock adjustment, and founded the new China's first unified national geodetic coordinate system - "1954 Beijing coordinate system," To fully implement the work laid astronomical geodetic networks and topographic map Mapping work has provided a guarantee. From 1972 to 1982, the military and mapping departments in Beijing and Xi'an, the national astronomical geodetic network adjustment as a whole, established a "People's Republic of earth origin" ( "Earth origin" also known as "geodetic datum" is a national level control network geodetic coordinates in the projected starting-point, point is located at Jingyang County of Shaanxi Province, 36 kilometers away from Xi'an), and "1980 Xi'an coordinate system," and as a basis for a comprehensive update of the national 1:5 million and 1:1 million scale topographic Fig. Military mapping departments on the "1980 Xi'an coordinate system," the ellipsoid parameters, transform and translation, the establishment of a "new 1954 Beijing coordinate system", and in 1978-1988 the use of domestic and international astronomy, earth, gravity and satellite observation data, has established China's "geocentric coordinate system." Since the 20th century, 90 years, the state departments jointly established the 2000 national GPS geodetic control network, in 2003 through a joint deal with the establishment of a new generation of China's integration with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of high-precision geocentric coordinate system - the "2000 Chinese geodetic coordinate system" . "2000 China geodetic coordinate system" was officially opened in 2008, marking China's vast land base construction has entered a new stage.

 
China's satellite navigation and positioning system construction

  According to China's scientists have made use of two geostationary satellites and the user elevation complete user-dimensional positioning theory, China from 1994 to 2002 the basic form China's satellite navigation and positioning system - Compass navigation test system, was officially opened in December 2003 to run . China is the world's first three with their own satellite navigation system. Compass navigation test system of the space segment from three geostationary satellites, has in China and the surrounding areas positioning, timing, message communication and wide-area differential GPS function, has been mapping, telecommunications, water conservancy, transportation, exploration, earthquake relief , forest fire prevention and national security and other fields has played an important role. In the Beidou navigation test system, based on the building of our country is being implemented Compass Navigation Satellite System (Compass Navigation Satellite System for the English name, Beidou for the Chinese transliteration of name). Compass Navigation Satellite System of the space segment by five geostationary orbit satellites and 30 non-geostationary orbit satellites can provide positioning accuracy of 10 meters in free and open services, and higher positioning accuracy of two kinds of service mode authorization service. First Beidou navigation satellite launched in April 2007, in recent years series will be launched by Compass navigation satellite, and gradually expanded into global satellite navigation system for national economic construction to provide efficient navigation and positioning services.

 
Height Determination of Mount Everest

  Mount Everest is the highest peak on Earth, located in the Himalayas between China and Nepal border, its altitude elevation data has historically been a concern around the world. Since the 1847 confirmation of human elevation of Mount Everest has reached 10 times, officially adopted the elevation is also changed several times. In 1975, the Chinese mountaineering team national surveying and mapping sector to work together to establish peak surveyor's beacon, using trigonometry, astronomy, gravity, standards and refractive index measurement method, accurate determination of Everest altitude of 8848.13 meters, the official release was the adoption of the use of almost 30 years. In May 2005, the state mapping departments using traditional triangular ranging law, observed peak surveyor's beacon and ranging reflection prism, the use of modern space geodetic measurements using GPS receivers and ground measured at the peak position altimetry, the use of combination of GPS sounding radar measurement of peak dynamic positioning technology, the snow cover thickness and snow terrain, has made the most precise ever measured height of Mount Everest results. October 9, 2005, the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping behalf of the Chinese government announced to the world in 2005 measured by elevation of 8844.43 meters above sea level Mount Everest, measurement accuracy of ± 0.21 meters, peak ice thickness of 3.5 meters. Accurate Determination of Mount Everest elevation data has important scientific significance and practical significance, while highlighting the important data in geographic information science and authority.

 
Digital mapping technology system for the establishment of

  Digital mapping technology system for the establishment of our efforts to fulfill the traditional mapping to digital mapping landmark event in the overall transformation of one. It was created to process include: the 20th century, 80 years focused on domestic analytic mapping and digital mapping technology, science and technology research and successful development; 90's focus will be on the establishment of the national demonstration bases and eight driven into the scale with domestic scientific and technological achievements of the traditional analog mapping system for the implementation of production technology of digital transformation, the establishment of a new digital mapping production process; the late 90s to the early 21st century will focus on the implementation of the national basic surveying and mapping infrastructure projects. National basic surveying and mapping infrastructure projects launched in 1999, invested nearly 260 million yuan, took five years to complete, through a public bidding and purchasing nearly 6,000 sets of special computers and mapping equipment and software, digitized mapping process in accordance with a systematic integration into by the aerospace remote sensing data processing system, an infrastructure management services, technology, geographic information system, and basic geographic information system data on production technologies and national basic geographic information system data transmission network composed of four individual projects basic geographic information acquisition and processing, storage and management and distribution of mapping and application of modern infrastructure facilities. National basic surveying and mapping infrastructure projects in 33 mapping units across the country precipitated the corresponding technological achievements, and promote the surveying and mapping organization of production restructuring, transformation and mapping product model changes, so as to bring mapping technology from the traditional system to a system of digital mapping technology, the historic inter - Yue. Digital mapping technology system for the establishment of improved productivity and efficiency of surveying and mapping, surveying and mapping to promote scientific and technological progress and enhanced surveying and mapping support, broadening the mapping service model.

 
West of the country a blank area of mapping topographic maps

  China's western region of about 2 million square kilometers territory has not been the fundamental 1:5 million scale topographic maps, known as the "no-map blank zone." The map of the "blank area" are seriously hindering the implementation of the western development strategy and regional economic coordinated development. Blank area in western topographic map mapping project plans to invest 1.4 billion yuan, with five-year period (2006 to 2010) with modern high-tech mapping technology to complete the Western 1:5 million scale topographic maps blank area topographic map and data mapping Database task . Western mapping project using modern geo-spatial information integration technology, for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Tarim Basin, transverse mountain ranges of the natural and geographical characteristics of different regions, respectively, developed a scientific and reasonable technical means to carry out core and key technologies research. Currently capture rare or no control of a wide range of aerospace remote sensing image self-positioning and regional network adjustment techniques to solve problems of foreign trade control, building and development of a wide range of satellite image mapping technology systems and airborne multi-band multi-polarization InSAR mapping system for the first time the western region a wide range of mapping and satellite imagery mapping based on radar images. Topographic maps blank area west of the country the successful completion of survey and mapping, will China's western development and implementation of national sustainable development strategies, the western infrastructure planning, design and construction, resource investigation and development, ecological construction and environmental protection, anti-terrorism separatism, safeguarding the border security, and the progress of Western science and culture has a positive role in promoting.

 
All digital photogrammetry system was successfully developed

  After analogue photogrammetry photogrammetry, analytical photogrammetry and digital photogrammetry three stages. Digital Photogrammetry theory and development program of China Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Professor Cho's father the king's 70 years in the 20th century made. After decades of efforts, China with independent intellectual property rights of full digital photogrammetric system was successfully developed in the early 90s, mainly VirtuoZo digital photogrammetric workstations, JX4 digital photogrammetric workstation and DPGrid digital photogrammetry grid. Digital photography is the biggest characteristic of the measurement system to achieve automatic digital image correlation and matching can be measured indoors most of the work completed to replace the expensive analog and analytical photogrammetric instruments, reducing the number of field measurement tasks, reducing the work intensity, improve operational efficiency, reduced mapping cycle, led into the digital mapping era. At present, China has produced full digital photogrammetric system, more than 4,000 sets of production requirements to meet the mapping, replace all the foreign system, and sold in international markets, including developed countries.

 
National Atlas of preparing for publication the
  China National Atlas of the 20th century and early 80s by the State Council's approval of the national key research projects. National Atlas of China in accordance with normal, natural, agricultural, economic, and historical atlas published in five volumes prepared. National Agricultural atlas was first published in 1990; the country's economic atlas in 1993, two versions in English and Chinese published simultaneously in 1995 issue of electronic (CD-ROM) version; State General Atlas published in 1995, and in 1997 to issue electronic (CD-ROM) version; National Physical Atlas of 1998, two versions in English and Chinese at the same time published and released in 2006, electronic (CD-ROM) version; National Historical Atlas of the sub-3 is scheduled to begin in 2009 published in succession. China National Atlas of five volumes constitute a whole, the volumes and relatively independent, is China's natural, economic, social and historical integrity of compilation, but also Chinese geology, biology, environmental science, economics and history research system summary and summarized. China National Atlas of the publication, not only for China's economic construction and social development of the overall planning and macro-level decision-making provides an important scientific basis, but also for research, teaching provides a detailed and accurate maps and information at the same time promote a regional atlas and professional preparation of atlas publishing. National Atlas of China has won the nation's first major scientific and technological achievements of the General Assembly and Scientific and Technological Progress Award for first prize and second prize, State Scientific and Technological Progress Award, the National Book Award and Book Award in China, many times in the international map, geography, and international meetings Book Fair on display, access to "international best maps Award."
 
China's accession to the four international mapping organizations

  Before and after the 20th century, early 80s, China has joined the four major international mapping organizations - the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), the International Cartographic Association (ICA), International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG ). In August 1977, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) to accept China as a formal member of Chinese Society of Surveying and Mapping at the same time become the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) members, since 1980, the Chinese Society of Surveying and Mapping has formed a delegation to participate in the previous IUGG General Assembly and the IAG academic conferences, served as IAG Executive Committee, Vice-Chairman and the IUGG Executive Committee. In August 1980, the Chinese delegation to participate in the ICA Surveying and Mapping Institute of the 6th Congress and the 10th International Cartographic Conference, ICA has been accepted as national members, has since been sent a delegation to participate in the first session of the Congress 7-13 and 11-23 International Cartographic Conference, ICA also recommends three served as vice chairman of the 4 th. In July 1980, the Chinese Society of Surveying and Mapping delegation to participate in the 14th Congress of the ISPRS, ISPRS accepted as full members, has since been sent a delegation to participate in the first 15-21 session of the General Assembly, recommended more than serve as Chairman of the Technical Committee, the General Assembly President and the Secretary of ISPRS long. In August 1981, the Chinese delegation to participate in the FIG Surveying and Mapping Society of the 16th General Assembly, has been accepted as a member, after a row has participated in all missions on behalf of the General Assembly and the relevant academic conferences, and recommend staff as the Technical Committee. Through its participation in four international surveying and mapping organizations and their activities, understanding of the international surveying and mapping scientific and technological developments and trends, participate in international exchanges and cooperation in surveying and mapping technology to establish and expand China's international status and influence surveying and mapping community.

 

Digital City Construction and grid-based urban management system to promote

  Digital region-building has become a global hot topic. China's digital region-building, including Digital China, Digital provinces, digital cities and digital district towns, the effectiveness of the construction of digital cities is particularly prominent. Digital City building to information technology and spatial information infrastructure as the main content is not only to serve the government and departments, to improve scientific decision-making, public management and emergency response capabilities, while providing the relevant units and the general public, and improve working efficiency, convenience daily. Digital City Construction has covered 10 provinces nationwide. Grid-based urban management system refers to the comprehensive use of Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) technology, as well as network and wireless communication technology, using meters of cell components grid management and urban management practices to achieve refinement and management of urban management, accurate positioning objects, create a new system of urban management, urban management and recycling processes, to achieve precise, agile, efficient, full-time monitoring coverage. Grid-based urban management system was developed between 2004 and 2005 took the lead in the Dongcheng District of Beijing was founded as digital management of a new model city. The model mainly by the seven parts - meters element mesh Management Act, urban Parts Management Act, urban-pass information collection devices, urban management process reengineering, urban management system, "axis" and a comprehensive performance evaluation system and a variety of technologies integrated grid city management information platform. Grid-based urban management system has now been more than 100 cities across the country to promote the application of a strong impetus to the digital city construction and development.

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